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译:Keeping within our earthly limits

来源: 时间:2010-11-3 9:31:00 点击:

The Living Planet Report, produced by WWF and its partners, shows that humanity’s demands still outstrip the world’s natural resources – a trend likely to worsen. chinadialogue looks inside the 2010 edition.


Populations of tropical species are plummeting and humanity’s demands on natural resources are sky-rocketing to 50% more than the earth can sustain, according to the 2010 edition of WWF’s Living Planet Report – the leading survey of the health of the earth.

The WWF study -- produced in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London and the Global Footprint Network -- uses what it terms “a series of indicators to monitor biodiversity, human demand on renewable resources and ecosystem services”.

This “Living Planet Index” reflects changes in ecosystems by tracking trends in nearly 8,000 populations of vertebrate species -- more than 2,500 species of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians. The global index, says the report, shows a 30% decrease from 1970 to 2007; the tropics have been hardest hit, with a 60% decline in less than 40 years.

“There is an alarming rate of biodiversity loss in low-income, often tropical, countries while the developed world is living in a false paradise, fuelled by excessive consumption and high carbon emissions,” according to Jim Leape, director general of WWF International. Tracked populations of freshwater tropical species have fallen by nearly 70%, the report says – “greater than any species’ decline measured on land or in our oceans”.

On a more positive note, some “promising recovery” by species’ populations in temperate areas was found, partly due to greater conservation efforts and improvements in pollution and waste control.

“Species are the foundation of ecosystems,” noted Jonathan Baillie, conservation programme director with the Zoological Society of London. “Healthy ecosystems form the basis of all we have – lose them and we destroy our life-support system.”

A second indicator of the planet’s health, the ecological footprint, tracks human demand on ecosystems by measuring the area of biologically productive land and water required to provide the renewable resources people use and to absorb the carbon dioxide waste that human activities generate. Latest measurements show that human demand on natural resources has doubled since 1966 and that humans are using the equivalent of 1.5 planets to support their activities. By 2030, if we continue to live beyond the earth’s limits, the equivalent of two planets’ productive capacity will be needed annually.

Leape sees a continuation of current consumption trends as leading the world “to the point of no return”. If the whole world lived like the average resident of the United States, he said, “4.5 Earths would be required”. An alarming 11-fold increase in humanity’s carbon footprint over the last five decades means carbon now accounts for more than half the global ecological footprint.

(译文如有出入请联系本会,来源于chinadialogue)

译   文:

停止透支地球资源

世界自然基金会及其合作伙伴发布的《地球生命力报告》表明,人类的需求仍然超出了世界自然资源的承受范围,这一趋势还可能恶化。中外对话对该报告的2010年版进行了探讨。


  世界自然基金会的《地球生命力报告》是最权威的地球健康诊断书,该报告的2010年版指出,热带物种数量在直线下降,人类对自然资源的需求迅速上升,超过地球承受能力50%。

  世界自然基金会(WWF)的这份研究是在与伦敦动物学会以及全球生态足迹网络的合作下完成的,使用了“一系列指数来对生物多样性、人类对可再生资源的需求和生态系统功能进行监测。”

  这个“地球生命力指数”反映了8000个脊椎动物种群近来的变化轨迹,其中包括超过2500种哺乳类、鸟类、鱼类、爬行类和两栖类动物。报告指出,全球指数表明,从1970年到2007年,热带地区遭受了最重的打击,不到四十年中种群数量平均下降60%。

  “低收入国、特别是热带国家的生物多样性流失状况令人担忧,与此同时,发达国家还在进行超规格的高消费和高碳排放。”世界自然基金会总干事吉姆·利普说。报告还指出,监测中的热带淡水物种种群减少了近70%,“超过任何可以计算的海陆物种”。

  但是也有更加积极的消息,报告也发现在一些温带地区,种群数量有某些“可喜的回升”,部分原因在于更加有力的保护措施和污染及水控制方面的改进。

  伦敦动物学会的保护项目主管乔纳森·贝利说:“物种是生态系统的基础,健康的生态系统又是我们所拥有的一切的基础,没有它我们的生命维持系统也就毁灭了。”

  地球健康的第二个指数是“生态足迹”,它追踪的是人类对生态环境的需求,方法是对为人类提供可再生资源、以及吸收人类活动产生的二氧化碳废物的生物生产土地和水进行测量。最新的测量结果表明,人类对自然资源的需求从1966年到现在翻了一番,人类活动每年消耗的资源相当于地球供给能力的1.5倍。如果不加以限制的话,到2030年这个消耗量将达到地球供应力的2倍。
  利普认为,目前的消费趋势如果持续下去,将把世界带上一条“不归路”。他说,如果全世界的人均消耗量达到美国的水平,“要有4.5个地球才够用”。过去五十年中,人类的碳足迹增长了11倍,在全球的生态足迹中占据了超过一半的比例。

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